Google us ruling on Google 'will not sway European inquiry'





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titreGoogle us ruling on Google 'will not sway European inquiry'
date de publication06.03.2017
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Anglais traduction

correction

Farewell address : discours d'adieu

Google US ruling on Google 'will not sway European inquiry'

Google : la justice américaine ne va pas influencer l'enquête européenne

Rivals welcome news that European commission will pursue investigation despite findings of America's FTC

Les concurrents de Google saluent la décision de la Commission Européenne de poursuivre son enquête en dépit des conclusions de la FTC aux États-Unis.

After the US regulator this week dismissed allegations that Google gives unfair prominence to its own services in search results, the European commission has denied that the decision will affects its own investigation into the claims.

À la suite de la décision prise cette semaine prise par l'autorité de régulation américaine de rejeter les accusations selon lesquelles Google privilégierait ses propres services dans la présentation des résultats de son moteur de recherche, la Commission européenne a démenti les rumeurs selon lesquelles cette décision affecterait/influencerait ses propres recherches/ sa propre recherche/ enquête dans le cadre des plaintes déposées.

The US federal Trade Commission (FTC) ruled after a two-year investigation that "Google's primary purpose … was to improve the user experience". The decision drew immediate condemnation from Microsoft. EC spokesman Michael Jennings said on Friday: "We have taken note of the FTC decision, but we don't see that it has any direct implications for our investigation, for our discussions with Google, which are ongoing."

Après deux ans d'enquête, la FTC (Federal Trade Commission) a jugé/considéré que « l'objectif premier de Google … était d'améliorer le service à l'utilisateur/ le niveau de satisfaction de l'utilisateur ». Cette décision a provoqué une condamnation immédiate de la part de Microsoft / cette décision a été immédiatement condamnée par Microsoft. Michael Jennings, porte-parole de la Commission Européenne, a déclaré vendredi : « Nous avons pris bonne note de la décision de la FTC, toutefois nous considérons qu'elle n'a pas de lien direct avec notre enquête, ni avec nos discussions/négociations en cours avec Google. »

But Microsoft, one of the companies that raised Google's dominance with the FTC, has complained publicly that the agency had not met its own standard procedures, which would require any measures planned against Google to be shown to complainants. "The FTC's overall resolution of this matter is weak and – frankly – unusual," said Dave Heiner, Microsoft's chief lawyer. "We are concerned that the FTC may not have obtained adequate relief even on the few subjects that Google has agreed to address."

Mais Microsoft, l'une des sociétés qui a invoqué/dénoncé l'abus de position dominante de Google auprès de la FTC, s'est plaint publiquement que l'autorité n'ait pas respecté/ appliqué les procédures requises, selon lesquelles toute mesure à l'encontre de Google devrait être présentée aux plaignants/ demandeurs // les procédures requises : les plaignants n'ont pas eu connaissance des mesures à l'encontre de Google. « De manière générale, la façon dont la FTC a réglé cette affaire manque de fermeté/rigueur et est franchement inhabituelle » a déclaré Dave Heiner, avocat principal de Microsoft. «  Nous sommes préoccupés par le fait que / nous sommes préoccupés, en effet, la FTC n'ait peut-être pas obtenu d'engagements adéquats/ de garanties appropriées, y compris sur les quelques sujets Google a accepté de traiter. »

Heiner claimed the weakness of the FTC's strictures showed itself in Google's reaction: "The litmus test of any antitrust outcome is the set of statements made by a company on the day the outcome is announced … Google seems to be walking with a new spring in its step.''

si structures : Selon Dave Heiner, la réaction de Google illustre les faiblesses structurelles de la FTC/ Dave Heiner prétend que les faiblesses structurelles de la FTC sont visibles/ se reflètent dans la réaction de Google.

Si stictures : Dave Heiner, a prétendu que la faiblesse des critiques/ des sanctions de la FTC s'est reflétée sans la réaction de Google.

« Le test décisif de tout accord anti-trust/ de tout accord destiné à combattre les monopoles, c'est l'ensemble des déclarations faites par une société le jour où les résultats sont annoncés / le jour de l'annonce des résultats … Google semble avoir des ailes/ avoir un avenir radieux devant lui / avoir le vent en poupe. »

Google is still being investigated by the EC over allegations that it favours its own products in searches, and downgrades those of potential rivals in search and other areas such as shopping. Heiner greeted the EC's announcement as "good news", claiming that antitrust chief Joaquin Almunia "has made clear that he will close his investigation of Google only with a formal binding order that addresses search bias and other issues".

Google fait toujours l'objet d'une enquête/ d'investigations de la part de/ à l'initiative de / diligentées par la Commission européenne sur des accusations des favoritisme dont bénéficieraient ses propres produits dans le résultat des recherches faites sur son moteur. Dans ses recherches ainsi que dans d'autres domaines tels que les achats en ligne, Google rétrograderait / déclasserait les résultats de ses concurrents potentiels. Dave Heiner a salué l'annonce de la Commission et l'a qualifiée de « bonne nouvelle », déclarant que Joaquin Almunia, Commissaire en charge de la concurrence, avait « clairement indiqué qu'il n’achèverait son enquête sur Google que sur une décision (pas ordonnance) exécutoire portant entre autres sur la subjectivité des recherches. »

Fin de la correction

The FTC decided that any bias shown by Google in search results was done to benefit the consumer, and so did not constitute an abuse of its power. But it required Google not to penalise the search ranking of companies that withdraw their data from some of its products, such as Shopping or Local, and to allow advertisers to move data between multiple platforms.

Microsoft was critical of the lack of consultation there: "We would have explained that Google's promise on ad campaign portability falls short of the mark in various ways. For example, Google inexplicably has not promised to allow all advertisers to port their campaign data to other ad platforms – only those with a primary billing address in the United States." Many firms advertising there have non-US addresses, Heiner pointed out.

Under the terms of the consent with the FTC, Google also has to license essential patents owned by itself or Motorola to any willing licensee – in theory putting an end to lawsuits where its Motorola subsidiary has sought US sales and import bans against the iPhone, iPad and Microsoft's Xbox 360.

But Microsoft was critical of that too, saying that it did not amount to a complete commitment never to seek sales bans over essential patents – which it said itself, Apple and Bosch have previously pledged to do.

Traduction 2

tough:sévère/rigoureuse

to spark : déclencher

taxpayer:contribuable

to lose (1 seul o!!!)

adjectif de nationalité=>majuscule : French, Birtish …

price : prix (coût) prize : prix (médaille, trophé ...)

to support : soutenir/encourager (pas supporter)

exiting : être enthousiaste (pas excité)

row : dispute

personal gain : avoir, accumulation de richesse

Gérard Depardieu's tax move to Belgium divides France

Correction :

L'exil fiscal de Gérard Depardieu en Belgique divise la France

Wealthy taxpayers' desire to flee tough fiscal policy has sparked a debate about patriotism and personal gain



La volonté des contribuables fortunés/aisés de fuir devant/face à une politique fiscale rigoureuse/sévère/impitoyable a provoqué/lancé/suscité un débat sur le patriotisme et les avoirs/l'accumulation de richesse.

France is discovering that, when it comes to wealthy taxpayers, you win some – and you lose some.

La France découvre à cette occasion qu'en matière de contribuables fortunés, il y a ceux qu'on gagne et ceux qu'on perd // il y a ceux qui partent et ceux qui restent // on en gagne autant qu'on en a perd.

As the country's celebrities have lined up to defend or denigrate actor Gérard Depardieu following his self-imposed fiscal exile in neighbouring Belgium, the French have just welcomed back prize-winning author Michel Houellebecq after more than a decade living abroad.

Alors que les célébrités nationales se sont mis en ordre de bataille/se succèdent tour à tour pour défendre ou dénigrer l'acteur Gérard Depardieu suite à son exil fiscal volontaire chez le voisin belge, les français viennent/la France vient de saluer le retour de l'auteur Michel Houellebecq, lauréat de nombreux prix // le retour de Michel Houellebecq, auteur primé après plus d'une dizaine d'années passées à l'étranger.

The tax row sparked by Depardieu's departure has divided France – and not simply along traditional left-right, north-south or rich-poor lines. Fans and critics have spent the last week fretting over the morality of his decision and whether concepts of patriotism and solidarity outweigh those of personal gain and perceived greed.

La querelle fiscale déclenchée par le départ de Depardieu a divisé la France – et pas seulement selon le traditionnel clivage gauche-droite, nord-sud ou riches-pauvres. Les fans/admirateurs et les critiques/détracteurs ont passé la semaine dernière à se préoccuper de la moralité de sa décision et de savoir si les concepts de patriotisme et de solidarité l'emportent sur/pèsent davantage que ceux de patrimoine/ de la richesse de gain personnel et d'apparente cupidité.

Correction

spiral : module en accès libre => ctrl f => traduction journalistique => échange de documents => textes

The Prime Minister : le Premier ministre (attention au majuscule : que au Premier pas au ministre en français)

Even after weeks of speculation, the announcement a fortnight ago that Depardieu, 63, was moving to Belgium to take refuge from Socialist president François Hollande's planned "temporary supertax" on earnings of more than €1m (£815,000) came as a shock to fans.

Même après des semaines de spéculation, l'annonce il y a quinzaine de jours/deux semaines qu'à 63 ans, Depardieu, déménageait//allait déménager/s'installer en Belgique pour échapper à la mesure temporaire de « super-taxe /surtaxation» prévue par le président socialiste François Hollande pour tous les revenus supérieurs à un million d'euros, a été un choc pour les fans/admirateurs.

The Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault, described the move as "shabby", provoking a furious response from Depardieu ("who are you calling shabby?"), and from Philippe Torreton, a leftwing, César-winning actor who lambasted his colleague in the pages of Libération. In the article, published last week, Torreton, 47, wrote: "You no longer want to be French? You are leaving the French boat in the middle of a storm? Did you think we would approve? What did you expect? A medal? An honorary César from the finance ministry?

Le Premier ministre Jean-Marc Ayrault a qualifié cette (et non la) décision de « minable ». Furieux, Gérard Depardieu lui a répondu : « Minable, vous avez dit minable? ». Philippe Torreton, César du meilleur acteur et sympathisant socialiste a pour sa part fustigé/cloué au pilori son collègue dans les pages de Libération. Dans cet article, publié la semaine dernière, Philippe Torreton, âgé de 47 ans, écrit: « Tu ne veux plus être Français? Tu quittes le navire français en pleine tempête? Tu pensais qu'on allait approuver?/ qu'on allait applaudir des deux mains ? Tu t'attendais à quoi? Une médaille? Un César d'honorifique remis par Bercy? »

"The prime minister considers your behaviour shabby, but you, you consider it what? Heroic? Civic? Altruistic? Tell us. We would like to know."

« Le Premier ministre juge ton comportement minable, mais toi, tu le juges comment? Héroïque? Civique? Altruiste? Dis-nous. On est impatient de/aimerait savoir. »

Singer Michel Sardou, 67, declared himself on the side of the patriots and warned Depardieu that he would be "as bored as a rat" in Belgium. "So there is some divine justice," he joked, adding: "If I said, 'Guys, now you're in the shit. Excuse me but I'm taking my dosh and getting out of here', I couldn't look myself in the face."

A 67 ans, le chanteur Michel Sardou s'est rangé du côté des patriotes/ s'est auto-proclamé patriote/s'est fait le chantre du patriotisme et a mis en garde Gérard Depardieu qu'il « allait s'emmerder comme un rat mort » en Belgique. « Il y a une justice divine » a-t-il plaisanté, ajoutant: « Si je disais, ' Maintenant, les mecs, vous êtes dans la merde. Excusez-moi mais je prends mon oseille et je me casse/tire', j'aurais des problèmes à me regarder dans la glace//je ne me regarderais pas bien dans la glace. »

However, the debate has moved beyond what some would call an act of betrayal by the star of French films such as Cyrano de Bergerac and Danton. Film director Claude Lelouch said Depardieu was lucky to pay high taxes because it showed he was a success. "It means things are going well," he told BFMTV.

Cependant/Toutefois, le débat a dépassé ce que certain qualifierait de trahison commise par la vedette de films français tels que Cyrano de Bergerac et Danton. Claude Lelouche, réalisateur, affirme que Gérard Depardieu devrait se considérer heureux de payer beaucoup d'impôts car cela était la preuve de son succès/qu'il avait du succès. Il a déclaré à/sur BFMTV que cela signifie que « les affaires marchent bien pour lui ».

And after Depardieu pointed out that he was not the only French celebrity to want to minimise his tax bill by moving abroad, the newspaper Le Parisien produced an interactive map showing he was right. It revealed Switzerland as the country of choice for fiscal refugees, including national treasures such as actor Alain Delon, singer Johnny Hallyday and a colony of tennis players and sports stars.

Suite aux propos/affirmations de Gérard Depardieu affirmant qu'il/selon lesquelles il n'était pas le seul personnage célèbre français à vouloir réduire ses impôts en s'exilant/déménageant à l'étranger, le journal/quotidien Le Parisien a réalisé/établi une carte interactive montrant qu'il avait raison/lui donnant raison. Celle-ci a révélé/mis en évidence que la Suisse était la destination favorite/le pays le plus souvent choisi par/ un pays de choix pour les exilés fiscaux, y compris par des joyaux d'envergure nationale/monuments nationaux tels que Alain Delon, Johnny Halliday et une cohorte de joueurs de tennis et de vedettes du monde du sport.

Then came news that Alain Afflelou, the wealthy head of a chain of French opticians, was moving to London, ostensibly to expand his business and "absolutely not for tax reasons".

Ensuite, la nouvelle s'est propagée selon laquelle Alaina Afflelou, le riche propriétaire d'une chaîne de magasins d'optique française, allait s'inatller à Londres, soi-disant/prétendument pour étendre ses activités et « absolument pas pour des raisons fiscales »

The backlash against the backlash sent a number of cinema greats, including Brigitte Bardot and Catherine Deneuve, rushing to Depardieu's defence, appealing for an end to "Depardieu bashing". And the reclusive Houellebecq, who might have hoped that his return from a decade in Ireland would have gone largely unremarked, has found himself at the centre of the storm. "It is true that money is important, but it is not what is most important. The main reason is that I want to once again speak my language in my daily life," he wrote.

Attaques et contre-attaques ont provoqué l'intervention de grands du cinéma tels que Brigitte Bardot et Catherine Deneuve, venues voler au secours de Gérard Depardieu, en appelant à la fin du «lynchage». Et Michel Houellebecq, alors discret et qui avait peut-être espéré que son retour après dix ans passés en Irlande passerait inaperçu, s'est retrouvé au cœur de la tempête. « Disons que l'argent est important, mais que ce n'est pas tout. La raison majeure est que j'ai envie de parler à nouveau le français dans ma vie quotidienne, » écrit-il.

Un peu de vocabulaire

English Vocabulary


  • Story (histoire):


 In a narrative film, all the events that we see and hear, plus all those that we infer or assume to have occurred, arranged in their presumed causal relations, chronological order, duration, frequency, and spatial locations. Opposed to plot, which is the film's actual presentation of certain events in the narrative.


  • Plot (intrigue):


 In a narrative film, all the events that are directly presented to us, including their causal relations, chronological order, duration, frequency, and spatial locations. Opposed to story which is the viewer's imaginary construction of all events in the narrative.


  • Narration (narration):


 The process through which the plot conveys or withholds story information. The narration can be more or less restricted to character knowledge and more or less deep in presenting characters' mental perceptions and thoughts.


  • Diegesis (diégèse):


 In a narrative film, the world of the film's story. The diegesis includes events that are presumed to have occurred and actions and spaces not shown onscreen.


  • Nondiegetic insert:


 A shot or a series of shots cut into a sequence, showing objects represented as being outside the space of the narrative.


  • Diegetic sound:


 Any voice, musical passage, or sound effect presented as originating from a source within the film's world.


  • Nondiegetic sound:


 Sound, such as mood music or narrator's commentary, represented as coming from a source outside the space of the narrative.
1. from the all-Movie guide Film glossary


  • Diegesis:


 The narrative elements of a film that are shown or immediately inferred from the content of a film. Though implication is not the primary focus, diegesis is a methodological analysis for discerning the exact nature of the film including all of the action and dialogue.
{"Diegetic" -- refers to things which exist within the "world" of the film's narrative. Non-diegetic or extra-diegetic elements of a film do not "exist" or "take place" in the same plane of reality that the characters inhabit. For example, presumably the characters within an action film do not "hear" the rousing theme music that accompanies their exploits. That music is extra-diegetic, but still part of the film.}


  • Narrative:



 A term denoting a story in any form of human expression where no single individual is telling the story.


  • Narrative Film:


 Narrative films can include a large corpus of fiction and nonfiction films including documentaries and dramas though the genre is predominantly fictitious. Narrative films primarily concentrate on story lines and can include character development but the drama and usual fiction are emphasized.


  • Plot:


 The events in an individual narrative and how they are arranged. Arguably the plot and the story are not the same.

{Narrative includes everything that is supposed to have happened in the "story"; plot is more concretely the scenes that are presented in the film, in the precise order in which they are presented. -- Hank}


  • Story:



 The specific unfolding of a sequence of events in a film. It includes character involvement, settings, and an order that superimposed in an arbitrary manner by the screen writer or by a parallel historical sequence through which the themes are developed. The story is general whereas the plot is specific and includes both internal and external relations to the work.
2. "Basic Elements of a Film"


  • Frame:



 Frames in essence are still images that are collected in quick succession, developed, and projected giving the illusion of motion. Each individual, or still, image on motion picture film is referred to as a frame.


  • Shot:


 In the process of photographing a scene a shot refers to one constant take by the camera. It is most often filmed at one time with a solo camera.


  • Sequence:


 Segments of a film narrative that are edited together and unified by a common setting, time, event or story-line.


  • Sound Track:



 That portion of the sound film medium to which are recorded the dialogue, music, narration and sound effects. The sound head and film gate on a film projector are physically separated from one another. This gap is covered during the recording of a sound-film by keeping the soundtrack recording a few frames head of the photographic image. The sound passes over the projector head at the same time the photographic image passes before the projector's light aperture/lens (the film gate).


3. "Basic Manipulations and Assembling of the Basic Elements"


  • Cutting :


The process of changing from one shot to another accomplished through the camera or by the splicing of shots together by the cutter (editor). This is also referred to as editing, the preferred term, and includes the decisions, controls, sensibilities, vision and integrative capabilities of the individual editing (cutting) artist.


  • Invisible Cutting:


Editing procedures that are so well-formed that the viewer is not aware that a splice has taken place. This is particularly important in action sequences because the audience is psychologically intent on the moving images that a cut in the film -- an unobtrusive cut -- is not noticed. This can easily be contrasted with Eisenstein's technique of quick cuts and jump cuts from one scene to the next without transition so as to unnerve the audience and evoke emotional responses in them.
{From the Complete Film Dictionary: Shot/Reverse Shot Technique: A technique of cutting developed by the Hollywood studios in which the camera switches between two conversant or interacting individuals. ... See invisible cutting.}


  • Montage:


 In the production and editing of film this term has come to refer to a seemingly unrelated series of frames combined so that one scene quickly dissolves into the next, shifting categories, effects and settings in such a manner as to convey a quick passage of time or an abstract unity through thematic devices such as meter, rhythm, tonality, and intellectuality (viz Eisenstein). Continuity, if it exists, is not captured in a frame by frame juxtaposition but rather through an abstraction. (Also see "mise-en-scene".)


  • Synchronization:


 Correctly aligning the photographic and audio portions of a film so that the image and sound is heard and seen simultaneously.


  • Framing:


 Properly surrounding the subject of a shot by the edges of the actual boundaries of the film. All that is seen in the viewfinder of a camera does not always translate directly into the proper centring of the subject. Framing is a technical nuance learned in the process of photography.
{Involves camera angle, distance, and arrangement of objects and people in front of the camera (the "mise-en-scene". Important in framing is the way that the edges of the screen make a sharp distinction between what is seen and what is not seen, what is included and what is excluded, in a particular frame.}


4. "Basic Elements of the Camera Setup"


  • Camera Angle:


 This term refers to the point of view held by the focal point of the camera when it is positioned for shooting. Included in the angle is the perspective given by the camera to the depth of focus, height and width of the particular object and action being photographed. The angle also refers to whether the shot is taken from behind, in front, from the side or from the top or bottom of the particular view. Terms appropriated for these various angles include eye-level angle, high-angle, low-angle, side view angle and the "Dutch" angle.


  • Distance:


 Distance refers to the amount of relational space between the audience and the character on the screen. Though the characters are two-dimensional and the audience is distinctly separate from the screen by dead space (virtual reality in the theatre has not

yet been developed) the camera's perspective, in effect, attempts to provide the amount of space desired subject to the director's discretion. This space often results in the interaction and psychological connection between the characters and the audience. The connection is achieved through the dynamics and varying degrees between long shots, medium shots and close-ups.


  • Establishing Shot :


 At the beginning of a film, episode or scene within a film, a wide-angle or "full-shot" is photographed for the purpose of identifying the location or setting. Thus the audience has established, or been given the opportunity to surmise an orientation. It also helps to establish the distinctions between the general locale and the specific details -- from subsequent shots -- within the general context.

{The Establishing shot is a wide-angle shot and/or a long shot. -- Hank}


  • Perspective:



 Spatial relationships. In film (painting, photography, theatrical performances, et cetera) perspective refers to the accurate depiction of three-dimensional space on a two-dimensional surface. (In experimental forms of film, of course, the accurate depiction is redefined.) Height and breadth come naturally to the surface but the added dimension of depth must be constructed through cameras, lenses, sets, and designs during composition. (See "anamorphic lens" and "composition".)


5. "Basic Camera Movements"


  • Camera Movement:


 Conventional uses of the camera to obtain camera angles and various perspectives while filming include panning, tilting, tracking or zooming of the camera. These camera ploys are also known as camera movement and rarely does the camera remain static. When a movement does occur, however, the camera comes to a rest providing a smooth transition to the scene. Movements are coordinated with the action in a scene so that the camera does not go in the opposite direction of the action (i.e. action left-to-right.) Of course, many alternative and experimental methods are used in the film industry and camera movement is no exception.


  • Dolly:


 Cameras and other equipment, such as microphones and lights, are often carried around the set on movable platforms. These are dollys and are independently moved by the dolly grip so that the technician, be s/he cameraman, audio or lighting technician, can keep their concerns focused. Dollys are often run on tracks for special dolly pans, chinese dollys, or for mere structurally smoothness. Most of the time, dollys are used for camera work and can include booms for the cameras which allows for the lowering, raising and pivoting of the camera. All of these shots can be achieved simultaneously with an horizontal movement of the camera upon the dolly track.


  • Dolly Shot:


 A camera perspective, on a moving or stationary subject, obtained while the camera is in motion on either a dolly or a camera truck. When the camera is so mounted and moves toward a closer proximity of the subject it is called "dolly-in"; likewise, when the camera is so mounted and moves away from the subject it is referred to as "dolly-out".


  • Crane:


 A large camera dolly that can raise the camera as much as twenty feet above the ground. The crane has the capacity to move forward and backward and is usually operated by electronic controls. Motions are generally silent and the crane allows shots

to be made over a wide ranging area providing great access to cover shots.


  • Pan:



 From the Greek "pan" meaning "all" this movement of the camera is achieved by moving the camera while turning it on a horizontal access. At least four functions are served by this technique including an all encompassing view of the scene, a device for leading the audience to a particular person or place, following a person or vehicle across a distant scene, or giving the audience the visual images and perspective as seen by a character when turning her/his head.

{A turn of the camera up or down on the vertical axis is called a "tilt." -- Hank}


Vocabulaire Version
A downgrade : une sous notation / abaissement de note

To rem home : toucher son but avec force / faire comprendre qq chose clairement.

To take small steps : avancer par étapes

Cuts: réduction des dépenses publiques.

To bail out : tirer quelqu'un d'affaire/ sortir qqn de prison en payant la caution

To weaken: affaiblir

Debt rating : pourcentage de la dette

Under preasure : augmentation de la dette

Best case: les scenarios les plus optimistes

To Warp : fausser, déformer, pervertir , gauchir

To be the back bone of : etre l'âme d'un groupe , le pillier

It's beyond my means : au dessus de mes moyens

As far as london and beyond : jusqu'au loners et au dela

To live in / at the back of beyond

To soften up : ad

oucir, ammolir

A shabby shower: douche glacée

Blase : être en flammes

To stand back : reculer , ne pas bouger ,

To have ones way : faire ce qu'on veut

To take ones life / to blow it out : se suicider

To mash : écraser

To post : éditer, sortir

Booty : butin

Mayhem : la pagaille

Robbery : un vol

A sens of worth : un sens de l'honneur

Underwrite : sous estimer -

Understatement : litote

Conference call : téléconférence

Counsil : conseil

Pledge : engagement, promesse , voeu

Government bonds : obligations d'Etat .

Credit rating : la notation

To adresse : s'occuper de ( un problème )

To issue : deliverer, emmettre

Turbulence : agitation, perturbation

Creditor : créancier

Sole : Unique

Asset : atout, avantage .

To slash : trancher tailler , Réduire

Welfare : aide sociale

Bloated : gonflé

To take something in one's stride : Prendre qq chose avec sérénité / Calme

Untold : énorme ( indiscible )

To live within one's means : Vivre en fonction de ses moyens.

A means : un moyen

To fail : échouer

To pass an exam : réussir un examen

A pass : un diploma, une autorisation , une habilitation

To demand : exiger

The law of supply and demand : la loi de l'offre et de la demande

To downgrade : dé-grader , discrediter un pays

Profligacy : débauche, dépense inconsidérée.

Fiscal : fiscal , financière

A suit : un costume

To suit : convener

A proof : une preuve

A bloat : une boursouflure

Adverse : négatif, défavorable

To prove temporary :

Advanced economies : economies développées.

Bond : obligations

Culminate : aboutir

Equity prices : valeurs financières.

Sovereign default : faillite

Bond market : marché obligataire

Systemic : crise du système

To view : concidérer comme

Yield : production , rendement , produire , produire des intérêts

Borrowing rates : taux d'intérêts

Taxpayers : contribuables

To be choked off : être étouffé

Lockdown : quarantaine

Flare : signal lumineux

To sage : mener une bataille, faire la guerre

To loot : piller

To quelle : calmer

To riot : faire une émeute

A wage agreement : un accord salarial

Wage policy : politique des salaires

A wage slip : feuille de paye

Running battles : courses pursuits

Mainland : territooire

To draft : tirer au sort / détacher/transferer

To draft into : incorporeal

Barrack : casèrne

Riot officers : officiers anti émeutes

Adjoining : attenant à

To chair : presider

Scale : échelle

Lead : mener, être en tête

A led pipe : un tuyau de plomb

Plumb : le plomb

Pip : piou piou

To Pip smbdy to do smth : battre qqn de peu .

Stock market : la bourse

Turmoil : turbulences

To close in on : rattraper qqn

Turmoil : trouble, agitation , convulsion, émoi, effervescence.

Shares : actions

To trade: vendre, échanger, faire des affaires

Stellar quarter : excellent trimestre

Chief exécutive : Directeur général

To secure : proteger/ Atteindre / Stabiliser

Valuable : de valeur/ précieux

Milestone : étape importante .

Dramatic : spéctaculaire / Dramatique

Mainstream : Grand-public/ Traditionnel.

Shareholders : actionnaires.

Market Capitalisation : Capitalisation boursière

To josstle : bousculer

A thrill : un frisson

A thriller :un objet d'imagination qui cause au spectateur un frisson de joie /peur/émotion..

Way : chemin, route, itinéraire . habiter en face : to live over the way

To scrap : Abandonner

Landowner : Propriétaire

A blow : Un coup

A downturn : Récession, Ralentissement économique

Resignation : Démission

To enveil : Exposer

Left leaning : De gauche

Pundits : Experts

Emulate : Imiter

Tariff : Taxe

Hitherto : Jusqu'à présent

Garb : Costume

Elation : Exaltation

To defeat : Vaincre, battre

Chairman : Président

To subside : Se calmer

Momentum : Vitesse, élan

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