Le ministère de l’education, de la recherche et de l'innovation

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1. Alderson, C. and A. Urquhart, Reading in a Foreign Language, London and New York: Longman, 1995;

2. Carrell, P. and Urquhart, A., Reading in a Foreign Language, London and New York: Longman, 1995;

3. Davies, F., Introducing Reading, London: Penguin English Applied Linguistics, 1995;

4. Early, M., Cooper E. and Santeusanio, N., People and Places and Reading Skills, (Teacher’s Edition), New York: Harcourt Brace Javanovich, 1979;

5. Early M., Gallo, D., Herr, G., Exploring Paths – Reading Skills Workbook, New York: Harcourt Brace Javanovich, 1979;

6. Harmer, J., The Practice of English Language Teaching, London and New York: Longman, 1999;

7. Nuttall, C., Teaching Reading Skills in a Foreign Language, Oxford: Heinemann English Language Teaching, 1982;

8. Wallace, C., Reading, Oxford University Press, 1992.

1 Iulia Hasdeu et B.P. Hasdeu – Documente şi manuscrise literare. Corespondenţa, vol. III, p. 340.

2 Ibid., p. 306.

3 Ibid., p. 411.

4 Angelo de Gubernatio, preface à Oeuvres posthumes. Bourgeons d’avril, Bucarest, 1889.

5 Iulia Hasdeu Chevalerie, Editura Eminescu, Bucuresti, 2001, p. 8.

6 Ibid., p. 6.

7 Ibid., p. 82.

8 Ibid., p. 48.

9 Ibid., p. 52.

10 Ibid., p. 143-144.

11 Ibid., p. 54.

12 Ibid., p 7-8.

13 Ibid., p. 64.

14 Ibid., p. 96.

15 Ibid., p. 26

16 Ibid., p. 44.

17 Ibid., p. 128.

18 Ibid., p. 134.

19 Ibid., p. 136.

20 Ibid., p. 137.

21 „The most miraculous thing about existence / is the fact that it is” (our underlining), Învăţăturile cuiva către fiul său / Someone’s Teachings to His Son.

22 „Now here is the principle: / the largest dimension / is life, /No life is larger than the other,/ No death remains unadorned / by a birth.” (our underlining), Contemplarea lumii din afara ei /The Contemplation of the World from outside It.

23What exists, is.” (our underlining), Învăţăturile cuiva către fiul său / Someone’s Teachings to His Son.

24 “Seen from the outside, / the world and the inhabitants of the blue point / can be characterized by the fact that they are / and can arouse the strange feeling / that they have the tendency to be…” (our underlining), Contemplarea lumii din afara ei /The Contemplation of the World from outside It.

25The reason why we are / and the reason why I am / are one.” (our underlining), Colinda colindelor / The Carol of Carols.

26He interrupts with his self / any other movement. / He turns what is into what is no more / and makes what has not been born yet / come into being. […] He swings death / until words spring out of it […] He is sometimes called the soul… (our underlining), Contemplarea lumii din afara ei /The Contemplation of the World from outside It.

27 “The pain of being is gently pressing me” (our underlining), Noaptea metalelor / The Night of Metals.

28 Ion Pop, Nichita Stănescu. Spaţiul şi măştile poeziei / Nichita Stănescu. The Space and the Masks of Poetry, Editura Albatros, Bucureşti, 1980, p.166

29 “Only the tear, only it / transports the self towards itself / lifts the self to itself / takes the self out of itself / by simple taking.” (our underlining), Prin simplă luare / By Simple Taking.

30 Nichita Stănescu, Amintiri din present / Memories from the Present, Editura Sport-Turism, Bucureşti, 1985, p. 21

31 Idem, op. cit., p. 193.

32 Ibidem, p. 195.

33He was crossing the river in a big hurry, although/ he was the only one showing his face there, all the time / Showing his face there he was passing / with his face and all and so / we were kissing our beheaded necks. / Your words and my words / were stuck together because/ the place where they were born / was the same for both of us. / Deity with two bodies and without a head /we were running like this trumping on four legs / with four hands leaning against the walls. / He was crossing the river in a big hurry, although/ he was the only one in existence. /Existing, he was passing with existence and all. / So, we were staying alone quivering / Sleeping in the same kneecap. / In the middle without color, / towards the verge without sound.”, Inscripţie nedescifrată / Undeciphered Inscription.

34 Ibidem, p. 184

35 Ibidem (our underlining), p.33, O aripă locuită. In English, an approximate translation would run as follows: “... the unhappy hope of those who are to be as well. It is about happiness - we would like to be it, but she is not us.”

36 Nichita Stănescu, op. cit., p. 190-191.

37 André Scrima, Antropologia apofatică, ediţie îngrijită de Vlad Alexandrescu,, Editura Humanitas, Bucureşti, 2005, p.105.

38 Nichita Stănescu, op. cit., p. 190-191.

39 Ibidem, p 90-91. The original Romanian version is: “este cât tot ceea ce este, dar şi înlăuntrul a tot ceea ce este. Cuvântul nu are dimensiune. El este. El este singurul lucru fără de lucru care este. Pretutindenea este. Cât tot ceea ce este, este. Niciodată în afara lui, pentru că ceea ce este nu are în-afară. Totdeauna numai înlăuntrul lui, pentru că ceea ce este are numai înlăuntru.”

40 “The word I am, the word you are”, Sincopă / Syncope, in the vol. Oul şi sfera

41 “… I baptized what I had done myself, / hurting myself, / continually weakening myself, continually dying / with words said by my own lips. […] / I die with every thing I touch […] / with each shadow that I throw on the sand, / my soul remains diminished, my thought / becomes longer; at each thing / I look as if I were looking at death, I rarely / forget this…” Enghidu / Enkido, in the vol. Dreptul la timp / The Right to Time.

42As we are submitted to the word, I pray the verb / Please, take me at once from the terror of life / take me away, take me away and stop punishing me / and do not give my self back to me anymore!”, Dialog cu Oda în metru antic / A Dialogue with the Ode in an Antique Meter, our underlining, in the vol. Oase plângând / Bones Crying.

43Born from a word I carry my meaning / through a divine desert.” Confundare / Mixup, our underlining, in the vol. Oul şi sfera.

44 “Now, right now, as you are reading / these words, reader, / my life is flowing before you / and your life is flowing in front of my words.”, Comunicare / Communication, our underlining.

45 Nichita Stănescu, op. cit., p. 197, our underlining.

46 “I will submit to getting unfamiliar / to my way of being, / but not to separation, / which is held in itself by the verb to be / I will get unfamiliar to my body / giving birth to a Prince Charming of the verbs… ”, Tonul / The Tone.

47 Idem, op. cit. p. 197, our underlining. The original Romanian quotation is: “tot ceea ce imaginăm există undeva. Putem să reflectăm cu seriozitate asupra raportului cuvânt – materie şi, inversând realul, să ne reculegem asupra acelui la început a fost cuvântul

48 France 2, France 5, septembre 2006.

49 voir l’article sur le cycle migratoire de 1989 en Annexe 2.

50 Le terme de Grande Roumanie définit l’union des territoires roumains reconnus historiquement en 1918 : elle comprend la Transylvanie, la Moldavie (roumaine), la Valachie et la Dobroudja.

51 Voir annexe 1.

52 Voir annexe 3.

53 Jean Caune, Cultura si comunicare, Bucuresti, Editura Cartea Romaneasca, 2007, p. 17.

54 Bernard Miege, Gandirea comunicationala, Bucuresti, Editura Cartea Romaneasca, 1998.

55 He considered that a true philosopher cannot be but an idealist.

56 As we know, in Plato’s opinion objects and human beings do not have a true existence: the world changes all the time, but is never there.

57 A Schopenhauer’s thinking sounds like that: „I suffer or I bore myself, so I exist.”

58 Cf. P.Gh. Bârlea, Contraria Latina, Contraria Romanica, Editura ALL Educaţional, Bucureşti, 1999, p. 228-232.

59 After the delayed success of the main works, the publishers started to exploit the older, original works. The course notes entitled „ The art of being always right or Eristic dialectics” have been published for the first time, after the author’s death by Julius Frauenstädt, in Arthur Schopenhauers handschriftlicher Nachlaβ, Brockhaus, Leipzig, 1864.

60 In fact, reviewing some texts is a part of Schopenhauer’s style. Even works that he approached more and ran back over systematically and published only after he had given a „unitary” form („simple and solid”, an he self appreciated his work) are followed by „supplements”, etc., which means that his thought dynamic was in agreement with the stated idea in these works, that “nothing is static but beauty”. Thus, Die Welt als Wille und Vortstellung „The world as a will and representation” is formed by a first unitary volume, in 4 big „books”, summarising 71 of paragraphs (vol. I – 445 p., in the above Romanian version), followed by 5 supplements: 2 at the first book (17 chapters, 300 p.) forming vol. II, then other 3 supplements, one for each of the following 3 books (summarising 33 chapters, 450 p.), which form vol. III of the book. Therefore, the supplements represent almost double of the proper text.

61 Emilia Dolcu, Viorel Dumitraşcu and Gheorghe Puiu, Notă asupra traducerii, in: Arthur Schopenhauer, Lumea ca voinţă şi reprezentare, vol. I-III, Editura „Moldova”, Iaşi, 1995, p. XIX.

62 In this case, the first level of the receptors was that of the students. In the first half of the 19th century, any German student was forced to know Latin and Greek, even if he studied medicine, sciences or technique. More over, this was compulsory for the “humanists” – letters, philosophy, history, theology.

63 Emilia Dalcu, Viorel Dumitraşcu, Gheorghe Puiu, loc. cit.

64 G. W. Allport, L. Postman, An analysis of rumor. Public Opinion Quarterly, 10, hiver 1946-1947, respectivement W. Peterson, N. Gist, Rumor and Public Opinion, American Journal of Sociology, 57, 1951, cités d’après M.-L. Rouquette : Les rumeurs, PUF, 1975, p. 30.

65 Beaucoup de rumeurs revêtent dans de telles circonstances la forme d’une prophétie auto-réalisatrice (self full-filling prophecy).

66 Marc Bloch, Réflexions d’un historien sur les fausses nouvelles de la guerre, Paris, Allia, 1999, pp. 49-50 (article paru pour la première fois en 1921 dans la Revue de Synthèse Historique).

67 Ibid., p. 17.

68 « […] le plus eslongné tesmoin, en est mieux instruict que le plus voisin : et le dernier informé, mieux persuadé que le premier » - Essais, III, XI.

69 «  - Et qui l’a dit ? […] – Qui l’a dit le premier ? Comment le saurais-je ? Mais le bruit court. » - Les Démons, III, II, 2.

70 « Toute la ville en parle », dit-il, pour se corriger tout de suite quand on lui demanda de quoi parlait la ville : « Je veux dire que le capitaine Lebéadkine, ivre, le crie sur les toits. C’est comme si tout le monde le criait, n’est-ce pas ? » - I, 6.

71 « […] cette rumeur absurde était née à partir de ce qui était arrivé à Stepan Trophimovitch, […] tout simplement au cours des innombrables récits de son aventure. […] le bruit l’avait transformé en une quelconque Tarapiguina » - II, X, I.

72 V. la citation de Montaigne mise en exergue au présent article.

73 Piotr Stepanovitch rappelle l’adage latin Vox populi, vox Dei – III, III, 2.

74 Ismail Kadaré, Qui a ramené Doruntine ?, p. 10 ; les notes renvoient à l’édition Fayard, 1986.

75 « Je pense que cette affaire va faire du bruit. » - idem, p. 19.

76 Idem, p. 27.

77 V. ci-dessus la fonction diagnostique de la rumeur.

78 Doruntine, p. 128.

79 « […] la faculté de fabulation en général ne répond pas à une exigence vitale. » - Bergson, Les deux sources de la morale et de la religion, 1932, p. 206.

80 Linda Roeder, Internet Slang - Chat, Forum, Email, Internet Slang and Terms: LOL, BTW, EG, FYI, IDN, http://internet.suite101.com/article.cfm/internet_slang , May 21, 2007

81 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Internet_slang_phrases

82 Kemmer, Suzanne, Modern Usage of English, www.ruf.rice.edu/~kemmer/Words04/usage/

83 What are Emoticons?, http://www.wisegeek.com/what-are-emoticons.htm

84 What are Emoticons?, http://www.wisegeek.com/what-are-emoticons.htm

85 http://messenger.yahoo.com/emoticons.php

86 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emoticon

87 J. Dubois, apud. G. Beldescu, Ortografia actuală a limbii române, p. 110.

88 G. Beldescu, Ortografia actuală a limbii române, p. 110.

89 Iorgu Iordan, apud., Adriana Stoichiţoiu-Ichim, Abrevierile în româna actuală: modă sau necesitate?, p. 205.

90 Mioara Avram, Abrevieri în actualitate, p. 4.

91 Adriana Stoichiţoiu –Ichim, op. cit., p. 203.

92 Fulvia Ciobanu, Finuţa Hasan, Formarea cuvintelor în limba română. Compunerea, p. 152.

93 Iorgu Iordan, apud. A. Stoichiţoiu-Ichim, op. cit., p. 206.

94 F. Ciobanu, F. Hasan, op. cit., p. 164.

95 M. Avram, Probleme ale exprimării corecte, p. 254.

96 G. Beldescu, Ortografia actuală a limbii române, p. 112.

97 Adriana Stoichiţoiu-Ichim, op. cit., p. 203.

98 Iorgu Iordan, Limba română actuală. O gramatică a greşelilor, p. 248.

99 Mioara Avram, Probleme ale exprimării corecte, p. 258.

100 Mioara Avram, op. cit., p. 259.

101 Vezi Stoichiţoiu-Ichim, 2006:14 (notiţa 2).

102 Idem 2001: 63.

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