Identitate şi memorie culturală în Europa secolelor XX – XXI





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titreIdentitate şi memorie culturală în Europa secolelor XX – XXI
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date de publication13.10.2016
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Referinţe bibliografice
Baghiu, Ştefan, Dumitru Ţepeneag. Convenţia firescului, între politică şi literatură, în revista Cultura literară, nr. 420 din 16.05.2013, accesibil la adresa http://revistacultura.ro/nou/2013/05/dumitru-tepeneag-conventia-firescului-intre-politica-si-literatura/

Deguy, Michel, Dumitru Ţepeneag: scrisul sau viaţa, în Observator cultural, Nr. 142 / 29 noiembrie- 5 decembrie 2007, accesibil la adresa http://www.romaniaculturala.ro/articol.php?cod=9096

Pavel, Laura, Matricea identitară la Dumitru Ţepeneag, în Apostrof, anul XVII, 2006, nr. 10 (197), accesibil la adresa http://www.revista-apostrof.ro/articole.php?id=194

Simion, Eugen, Ficțiunea jurnalului intim, volumul III. Discursul românesc, Editura Univers Enciclopedic, Bucureşti, 2005

Ţepeneag, Dumitru, Un român la Paris, ediția a III-a definitivă, Editura Cartea Românească, Bucureşti, 2006

Socio-political Context and Psychology of the Absurd in Virgil Tănase’s Drama
Lecturer Iuliana Barna, PhD

Dunărea de Jos University of Galați
Résumé: Dans la dramaturgie roumaine de l’après-guerre, l’absurde est engendré par l’illogique ou par les ambigüités de la société totalitaire. L’appel aux conventions du théâtre de l’absurde y est censé exprimer une pensée politique et sociale. Par le truchement des allégories, cette dramaturgie permet des références indirectes et subversives aux réalités immédiates. Les deux dimensions du théâtre de Virgil Tănase qui font l’objet de notre analyse – la psychologie et l’absurde – sont à l’origine de la configuration d’une sphéricité théâtrale.
Mots-clés: drame psychologique, théâtre de l’absurde, existentialisme, crise

In full revolutionary bloom of theatrical techniques, when playwrights aspire to a different kind of writing, a reforming one, Virgil Tănase becomes authentic precisely because he does not completely give up the models provided by his predecessors. The novelty of his drama lies exactly in that interference of modern and classic artfully rendered, without disrupting the structures of the dramatic text.

His plays seem to be psychological dramas, or, to put it otherwise, belong to the genre of psychological drama. As in the case of A.F. Chekhov, one finds out that Virgil Tănase’s characters have the same desire of living in happiness, of exceling themselves (one deals here with realism, in the contemporary sense, where the relationship with metaphysics and the transcendent is weakened), but, at the same time, know the existential disorientation, the confusion of the conscience before a world perceived as a chaos with mysterious laws. Such literature, with an artistic reflection different from the Chekhovian one (although one may find sources for the theatre of the absurd in Chekhov’s drama), is to be found in the plays of Albert Camus, Jean-Paul Sartre, Eugen Ionesco or Samuel Beckett. Virgil Tănase’s plays are lost between the psychological and the absurd. His characters seem to originate in a theatre of old, like Cervantes’s, in which the actants live a profound psychological crisis, in a political context under the empire of dissention.

Thoroughly analysing the dramatic texts, we tend to affirm that, in Virgil Tănase’s drama, the characters that have a biography are stressed, unbalanced, anguished, they simply live or survive some great failures.
Luca (Veneţia mereu) [Always Venice]:
De-atunci încoace, o viaţă goală, găunoasă. Toate lucrurile fără nici un gust, ca atunci când pui ceva în gură după o tărie. Asta este moartea: mişc încă, dau din mâini, dar nu-ţi fă iluzii, nu sunt decât un înecat al cărui corp face tumbe, dus de curent. O viaţă de ratat, un beţiv tâmpit care nu ştie încotro s-o apuce...) [Tănase, 1996a: 70]

Ever since, a hollow, empty life. All things tasteless, as if you put something in your mouth after liquor. That’s death: I’m still moving, I’m waving my hands, but make no mistake, I’m just the drowned whose body somersaults, drifted away. The life of a loser, a clod drunk who doesn’t know where he’s headed…
A drama close to life, to the day-by-day experience of its viewers is precisely a return to the precepts of pure art and to tradition, which endows Virgil Tănase’s plays with energy and viability.

The conflict is traditionally constructed, as a struggle between the individual and his destiny. Living the conflict is what changes the perspective on the inclusion of Virgil Tănase’s drama in the classical canons. The conflict between human reasoning, in search for order and sense, and the illogical, chaotic universe generates the absurd of the existence. “Acesta apare ca o perdea opacă prin care nu se vede nimic, nici un orizont. Omul suferă fără să ştie de ce, este vinovat fără vină.” [It appears like an opaque curtain which shows no horizon. Man suffers and he doesn’t know why, he is guilty without guilt.] [Ceuca 2002: 146-147].

However, one may easily recognize in Tănase’s plays Ionesco’s or Chekhov’s characters, who come irrespectively whether they have something to communicate or not, apart from their unhappiness, to instigate the audience or the reader to revolt, but also the playwright, who is in tune with the drama of his characters. The lines are stark and banal, “creând senzaţia unui pseudodialog [leaving the impression of a pseudo-dialogue] [Panţel Cenușer 2002: 59].
Paul (Îngeri, melci şi portocale) [Angels, Snails and Oranges]:
N-am să mai lucrez niciodată, niciodată. S-a terminat. Refuz. Ca un cadavru din care ceilalţi se-nfruptă: mort într-o şură şi şobolanii ronţăie din tine, îţi rod orele, zilele. Nu ne rămân decât momente estropiate, ciozvârte de sentimente, somnuri ciopârţite. Nu suntem întregi decât pe bucatele, zdrenţe de om, ce-a rămas de la şobolani, de la şobolanii care au trecut pe-acolo. [Tănase, 1996a: 231].

I’ll never work again. Ever. It’s over. I refuse. Like a corpse which the others are making a feast of: dead in a haystack and the rats are chewing on you, chewing your hours and your days. We are left only with mutilated moments, quarters of feelings, mangled sleeps. We are whole only in pieces, human rags, what’s left from the rats, from the rats that passed by.
The need for love, claimed with no reserve, lived, sometimes, with unbearable intensity is a romantic feature. The unforgiving lucidity of the prospect of the feeling in the relations between certainty and doubt, safety and the fear of betrayal, joy and suffering is, nonetheless, modern. But the views on love, which also create the conflict, remain of romanticist inspiration.

The aspiration of the characters is a unique, eternal, absolute love. At the opposite end, there is the acceptance of the compromise, of the perishable, ephemeral, and real. As is the case with the Romantics, the absolute can be attained but through death. Or, in other words, the characters are placed between the erotic and thanatic impulsion (my emphasis). The drama of love is reduced to the impossibility of living and loving at the same time. They exclude each other: one is freedom, while the other is conformity. Love leads to destruction and death. It is here an aspect of the tragic, falling in the category of hubris – what is too much, what goes beyond the limits, is destroyed. Loves destroys itself.

Veneţia mereu is a play that its author wanted passionately to write. “Veneţia este oraşul în care mi-ar plăcea să trăiesc şi, dacă vreodată mi s-ar întâmpla să iubesc peste măsură o femeie, la Veneţia aş iubi-o…” [Venice is the city I’d love to live in, and if I’d ever fall in love madly with a woman, it should be in Venice...] [Tănase 1996b: 100]. It is the drama of the escape from any constraint; it is a breakout to the dream world, however, a lucid one. It is a play of passion, of the desire, of the ardour that dominates the being. Playwright Virgil Tănase creates a novel tableau, a love story: Luca and Maria are reflections, sentiments of the man behind the stage. Love is the sole legitimation, the sole form of identity, even though it is born from pain and reaches the absolute through death.
Luca :

Aş vrea să vă iubesc mai mult decât orice pe lume. Ar trebui să-mi fie frică, înţelegeţi? Poate că-ntr-adevăr vă iubesc cu-adevărat. Nu râdeţi. Marile dragosti încep ca şi cele mai neînsemnate aventuri. Dispreţuind orice „te iubesc", daţi deoparte şi pe cel adevărat, singurul care contează, cel pe care vi-1 spun acum: Maria, te iubesc. Dacă vrei viaţa mea, ţi-o dau. Să mai dansăm, să trecem de la o orchestră la alta ca şi cum am avea trei vieţi: un vals, o polcă şi o arie… [Tănase 1996a: 109]

I’d like to love you more than anything in the world. I should be afraid, do you understand me? Maybe I truly am in love with you. Don’t laugh. The greatest loves set out as the most insignificant adventures. If you despise any «I love you», you ignore the truthful one too, the only one that matters, the one I’m saying to you now. Maria, I love you. If you want my life, you can have it. Let’s dance some more, let’s move from one orchestra to the next, as if we had three lives: a waltz, a polka, and an air…
This is an obsessive theme of Virgil Tănase’s drama, brought to the fore in all his plays, either against a realist background (De Crăciun, după revoluție [On Christmas’s Day, after the Revolution] and Copilul acestui secol extraordinar [The Child of This Extraordinary Century], or in Venetian mythology (Veneția mereu), but also in the spatial ambiguity of Îngeri, melci și portocale [Angels, Snails and Oranges] or Salve Regina, muzică de Pergolese [Salve Regina, Pergolesi music]. The heroine of the monologue Salve Regina, muzică de Pergolese and Cynthia in De Crăciun, după revoluţie wear more masks, live more real or imaginary hypostases. If one were to speak about the absurd in Virgil Tănase’s drama, one should look for the absurd in the loneliness of the characters, in the communication breakdown, in misery and suffering (my emphasis). For example, in Veneţia mereu, or in Îngeri, melci şi portocale, there are only two characters, a man and a woman, who seem to dedicate themselves to the problems of the couple. It is a state of aspiration towards a monadic paradise, but it is also the failure to reach it. Through the couple, humanity is reduced to its essential factors: the two interlocutors. The problem of the social relations is no longer an issue inside the couple – it is not about mending unity, but about living the drama of loneliness (as a duo). Existence is completely degraded. It consummates in the banality that annuls the ego through the failure of aspiration, in the hostility that devours the energies in a constant contradictory movement, meant to instate the nothingness within the relationships between humans (as a break between the self and the others). The characters, dissolved personalities at the end of a disastrous social and existential experience, live the twilight.

Virgil Tănase’s drama is placed in another horizon, one of contemplation, of disquietude, of rhetoric interrogations on the human condition, on the futile expectancy of a time in which a saviour to appear, on the adoption of a beneficial existential attitude, on the loss of identity of the character, on the problems of the couple, and on the Eros-Thanatos dichotomy, all – themes also present in Ionesco’s drama.

From the literature of the absurd, Virgil Tănase assimilates the protesting formula that announces the descent of the world towards the irrational, the depersonalization of the human being, and the modern existential crisis.

An excellent prose writer, Virgil Tănase serenely confesses that the novelist in him, the one who provides multiple identities to his characters and who works in the depths of their psychology has found a perfect mate in the playwright.

Virgil Tănase has split his life between directorship and playwriting, and he was never interested to adhere to any theatre movement, thus always remaining a marginal author. Regarded in its entirety, the dramatic work of Virgil Tănase elicits admiration. Hardly can one say it better than the theatre historian Mircea Ghiţulescu, with his admiring statement: “Virgil Tănase este un redutabil cărturar” [Virgil Tănase is a powerful scholar] [in Tănase 1996b].
References
Ceuca, Justin, Evoluţia formelor dramatice, Editura Dacia, Cluj- Napoca, 2002

Panţel Cenuşer, Gabriela, Specific şi creativitate în teatrul absurdului, Editura Universităţii „Lucian Blaga” din Sibiu, 2002.

Tănase, Virgil, Teatru, Editura Eminescu, București, 1996 (a)

Tănase, Virgil, România mea, Editura Didactică și Pedagogică, București, 1996 (b)


L’espace dans les romans de Pierre Michon
Doctorante Alina-Liana Pintican

Université « Babes-Bolyai » de Cluj-Napoca, Faculté des Lettres
Résumé : Notre travail se donne pour but une analyse textuelle détaillée de la manière dont les éléments de construction de l’espace se reflètent dans l’œuvre de Pierre Michon et de la façon particulière dont ces éléments participent à la construction poétique de ses romans.Le premier chapitre, constitué autour de l’opposition métropole-province, comprend deux sous-chapitres et présente l’espace géographique, les éléments qui composent l’espace clos et l’espace ouvert, les liaisons qui existent entre les pays que le narrateur traversait et les gens habitant ces pays. Le deuxième chapitre est constitué d’autres deux sous-chapitres et c’est une analyse de l’espace intime de signification symbolique, de la quête identitaire de l’homme et de l’artiste, tout en visant les techniques d’écriture dont l’écrivain a fait usage.
Mots-clés : espace, symbolique, identité, métropole, province, intime.
Avant-propos
La perspective problématique de cette étude est centrée sur l’analyse des éléments de la poétique de l’espace dans l’œuvre de Pierre Michon, dont les récits constituent le meilleur témoignage de l’état d’esprit de la nouvelle génération des écrivains. Il n’appartient à aucun mouvement littéraire.
À partir des années 1950, les mouvements littéraires disparurent et désormais, les écrivains sont seuls. Le lecteur contemporain est forcé à découvrir chaque texte et chaque auteur; il doit se laisser emporter par le plaisir de lire.1
Pierre Michon se situe en marge de la biographie, à mi-chemin des éléments fictionnels et réels. La matière de ses écrits est formée de ses propres souvenirs et émotions. Il ouvre le champ aux récits de filiation, aux fictions biographiques. Soit qu’il écrive sur des gens communs (Vies minuscules), les peintres (Vie de Joseph Roulin, Le Roi du bois, Maîtres et serviteurs), ou s’exerce à la creation pure (Mythologies d’hiver, La Grande Beune), il exige de lui-même la perfection.

Bien que la bibliographie sur Pierre Michon ne soit pas si riche, la raison pour laquelle noua avons choisi ce thème c’est le constat de la complexité de nombreuses oppositions, la dualité des éléments de la poétique de l’espace qui composent ses écrits (Paris-Creuse ; espace clos-espace ouvert; ombre-soleil ; jour-nuit; vie-mort).

Nous voulons axer la recherche sur l’opposition métropole-province ; Michon vit l’entre deux (ni Paris, ni village), il vit actuellement à Nantes. L’opposition était la prémise d’où nous sommes partis pour donner les titres aux chapitres qui suivent, composant cette étude.
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