Identitate şi memorie culturală în Europa secolelor XX – XXI





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Projections of Romania in Anglophone Travel Books in the Period between 1850 and 1940
Drd. Andi Sâsâiac

Universitatea „Alexandru Ioan Cuza” din Iași
Résumé : Le but de cet article est d'illustrer l’image de la Roumanie projetée dans les écrits de voyage anglophones, dans le contexte historique de la période entre 1850 et 1940. L'image que la Roumanie a à l'étranger représente un sujet de plus en plus à la mode à l'intérieur et à l'extérieur du pays, bien que l'intérêt des occidentaux ne soit pas strictement lié aux dernières décennies. Ce qui est récent est la prise de conscience que les Roumains commencent à développer dans leur mentalité collective, à l'égard de l'opinion des Occidentaux. Les images sont créées par les gens, et leur émergence est le résultat d'un long processus auquel plusieurs participants adhèrent. Pendant longtemps, l'idée était que les écrits de voyage reflétant les images de la Roumanie avaient des destinataires étrangers, et les réalités décrites étaient déjà familiers aux Roumains. Aujourd'hui ce type de perception est en train de changer. L'intérêt des Occidentaux pour la Roumanie doit être examiné dans le cadre des relations internationales de différentes époques de l'histoire. Les relations de pouvoir jouent un rôle actif dans la représentation d'une culture, dans la sélection des textes qui seront publiés, contribuant ainsi à la construction textuelle des images.
Mots-clés : image nationale, écrits de voyage, relations internationales
Introduction
The image that Romania has abroad represents, especially from a journalistic perspective, a more and more fashionable topic both inside the country and outside it. The reason for this international attention that Romania is getting could be due to its having reached a democratic system after the collapse of communism twenty-five years ago. To this historic event, there should be added its (no less historic) adhesion to the European Union. Both these factors have contributed to the westerners’ “discovery” of this close enough, yet “exotic” place. However, as will be seen, the westerners’ interest in this “different” country is not at all strictly related to the last two or three decades. What is indeed recent, on the other hand, is the self-awareness that Romanians are starting to develop, with regard to the westerners’ opinions, appreciative or deprecatory as they may be. One should bear in mind that, according to the sufficient evidence that can be found in the literature on the topic, it is not a superior or divine force that enables a person or a group to be regarded in a certain way. Images are created by people, and their emergence is not spontaneous, but the result of a long process to which several participants adhere. However, research on the topic of the evolution of Romania’s image, as it is reflected in travel books, is currently scarce1. For a long time, the idea was that such writings had different (foreign) addressees, and the realities described were already familiar to the Romanians anyway. Nowadays this kind of perception is gradually changing, and this change is explainable through the irreversible process of globalization, that makes Romanians have closer cultural, economic and political ties with other countries. Nonetheless, the westerners’ interest in Romania, which, as previously mentioned, is actually not that recent, should be considered within the framework of the international relations of various times in history. As in the case of translation, as Munday [2009:16] observes, power relations play an active role in representing a culture, its effects including the texts that are to be published. Power relations thus contribute to the textual construction of images and are probably the cause of certain fluctuations in textual representations of Romania in travel writing. Therefore, our historical survey on the evolution of the images of Romania in English travel writing would be insufficient if approached outside the political or economic contexts of the time the books were written, published, or when their action took place. The period on which this paper focuses is that between 1850 and 1940. The period covers the beginning of a sustained approach on Romania undertaken by English-speaking travel writers, up to the time interval between the two World Wars, which comprises the most positive representations of the country in western travel writing. Since our analysis deals with images of Romania that come from English language books, I consider it appropriate to relate it to western historical perspectives. Of course, Romanian sources are not to be disregarded the same as the media coverage of Romania in different historical circumstances could also be a useful source of information.
1. Projections of Romania in travel books in the Modern Era
Deletant [in Beller and Leerssen, 2007:223] affirms that the Romanian image was bland until the late nineteenth century. The premises of modern Romania (the development of the Romanian language and the widening of the national consciousness that was at first only shared by a few scholars) materialized no earlier than the nineteenth century. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, the British consul William Wilkinson published An account of the principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia (1820). This book, to which N. Iorga [1981: 468-474] pays much attention, portrays the peasants as being patient and resigned in front of the tough despotic conditions they had to face. Wilkinson talks about their terrible living conditions and about the superstitions that not even the priests (sometimes poorly educated themselves) could overcome. The 1800s brought a series of crucial events in the life of Romanians. First, there was the Revolution of 1821 (considered by Samuelson [1882:106] as a revolt, although Seton-Watson [1934: 161] acknowledges it as a revolution), which is regarded both by Romanian and foreign historians as a national movement and an intellectual regeneration. Second, the outbreak of the 1848 revolutions (in Habsburg Transylvania, as well as in Moldavia and Wallachia, which were under Russian protectorate at the time) seemed to promise the Romanian (now secular) elite the speedy fulfillment of their (national) aspirations [Hitchins, 2003:79]. As Seton-Watson [1934:185] observes, the 1848 events prove that the French culture and ideas infiltrated to the remote European cities of Bucharest and Iasi, and were met with great and sincere sympathy by the West. The subsequent Union of Moldavia and Wallachia in 1859, under the rule of Prince Alexander John Cuza received much attention, as it was strongly supported by France and met with great skepticism by Britain, which wanted to maintain the post-Crimean War status-quo. The positive attitude that France had towards the (nascent) Romania is illustrated by the appreciable series of French scholars, diplomats and artists that, as N. Iorga [1881: 515-600] shows, visited the territories during that period. Britain’s skepticism appears to explain Samuelson’s criticism towards Cuza, which is not shared, for instance, by Seton-Watson, Deletant or Hitchins: “the Prince, who enriched himself at the expense of a still suffering country, sought by every means to obtain absolute rule, and led an openly immoral life” [1882: 111]. Prince Charles’s accession to the throne of Romania seems to have improved Britain’s attitude towards Romania, which obtained, in 1878, its independence from the Ottoman Empire, “to a large extent through English instrumentality, and it is satisfactory to reflect that, so far, the blood and money of England have not flowed in vain” [Samuelson, 1882:3], although Hitchins [1994:52] mentions the disappointment that Romanian officials suffered because of “France and England’s indifference”, while Seton-Watson [1934:288] states that, indeed, “the London Government was completely indifferent” in relation with the Romanian cause. It is true that Romania played an important role in reducing the Ottoman influence in Eastern Europe, a fact which was convergent with England’s interest and was therefore, at least diplomatically, supported.

The pronouncing of Romania as a kingdom and of Charles as King of Romania (1881) attracted even more attention from the British. Only one year later, James Samuelson published his book, Roumania Past and Present. Vesna Goldsworthy [1998:54] observes that the founding of new kingdoms in South-eastern Europe had attracted the attention of the British towards these remote places, as the new royal houses offered easily comprehensible, yet bright images. The introduction of monarchy represented a means of assuring the “Europeanisation”. Moreover, besides Queen Mary of Romania (1875-1938), the granddaughter of Queen Victoria, there weren’t any other British royals in the Balkans. It is also worth mentioning that, according to Lăcătuşu [2000: 208], it was in the nineteenth century that Romanian literary works were translated and published in England (e.g. Doine – or the National Songs or Legends of Romania by E.C. Granville Murray - 1854, Roumanian Anthology by Henry Stanley, or Roumanian Fairy Tales and Legends by E.B. Mawr – 1881). There were several other nineteenth century travel accounts mentioning Romania, such as the one of William Beatty Kingston (1837-1900), who published A Wanderer’s Notes (1888) in London. He dedicated two of the book’s eleven chapters to his stay in Romania. As a journalist working for Daily Telegraph, Beatty Kingston came to Romania to advocate the cause of the Jews who were allegedly being oppressed. According to his own testimony, he was tolerably familiar with the Romanian language and personally known to the statesmen then in power in Bucharest [1888: 2]. His journey started in 1874, before the Romanian Independence and Kingdom. Since he uses the first person narrative, mentions toponyms and insists on his personal acquaintance with Romanian officials, Beatty Kingston’s book represents a form of modern travel writing. He is favorable to the visible progress that has been made since the coronation of Prince Charles:
Every object that met my sight, except the face of the country itself, had suffered a manifest change for the better; the peasants were decently clothed instead of being picturesquely draped in sordid rags; even the gypsies, the grown-up ones, at least were considerably less naked than they had been in the good old days [1888: 4].
Such clear, direct statements regarding the image of the country and its people are expressed in comparison to the author’s previous visit, thus the motif of return, specific to travel writing, is also present. Unlike Samuelson, the author is favorable to Cuza, criticizing the coalition that took him out of power. All in all, the book is appreciative of the newly founded Romanian monarchy, in accordance with the journalist’s assumed relationship with Romanian politicians.

A less favorable but no less important contribution to the development of Romania’s image is James Samuelson’s Romania Past and Present (1882) itself. Although it can hardly be considered a travel book (since there is no narrative and all aspects are presented as facts), it does feature a real journey to Romania (as the many pictures would also suggest) and it does bring forward images of Romania. In its first part, it describes the main Romanian cities and their inhabitants. As previously mentioned, there is little information about the writer, but the book (which nevertheless contains documented, trustworthy data), can be easily suspected of British propaganda. We have already seen that Samuelson (unlike Beatty Kingston or contemporary Western historians) criticizes the Romanian leaders whose policies contradicted that of Britain in those times; he also supports their political opponents. On the other hand, the author repeatedly mentions that there was direct British involvement in Romania’s national achievements, without, however, elaborating on the topic. There must have been, nevertheless, some economic relations between Romania and Britain (the type of relations that are usually politically favored), since Samuelson seems to have precise facts and figures, such as those referring to the city of Iasi:
Jassy is picturesquely situated at an altitude of more than 1000 feet above the sea-level, on the railway from Pascani (Galatz-Cernowitz) to Kischeneff in Russia. The number of its inhabitants is uncertain, probably about 75,000, and includes a large proportion of Jews, who monopolise the trade and banking business of the place. It stands upon three eminences, and its principal streets have been paved by contract with a London firm at a cost of 200,000 pounds [1882: 39].
The dichotomous Oriental / Western elements that Samuelson observes in the Romanian culture are also found in the travel books on Romania from the twentieth century. Samuelson displays a clearly Eurocentric perspective and associates the Oriental element with “savagery”, whereas the Western component represents civilization (in other words, the optimum orientation for Romania’s own interest). The “absorbing interest” that, according to Samuelson, England has for Romania, is explained by the author in terms of power relations. He considers Romania a formidable barrier against the aggressions of stronger powers and, through its southern border on the Danube, a potential actor in England’s trade with the East.

Samuelson’s book can be considered as a follow-up to James Ozanne’s Three Years in Roumania (1878), a very similar book in terms of content and structure, yet written in a more personal manner. The image of the Romanians that he provides is most favorable:
They are kindly and hospitable, pleasant company and devoted heart and soul to their country and to the memoirs of a once glorious past. Nor are the elements of progress lacking to them. They are, without exception, the most promising of the Christian races of the East (p. 227).

The overall image that Romania gained in the nineteenth century travel books is that of sensible modernization, although the level of mass education and the standards of living in the rural zone (which accounted for most of the country) was still precarious. Nevertheless, the prospects for future development are presented as being encouraging2.
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